某型飞机尾喷管开裂原因分析
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    摘要:

    尾喷管作为飞机发动机的重要组成部件之一,主要由薄板焊接而成。由于其长期在高温、振动以及气流冲刷等恶劣环境中工作,常出现尾喷管失效事故,而焊缝作为尾喷管中的薄弱部分,常出现开裂现象。某型飞机尾喷管在飞行完成后的例行检查中在焊缝上以及焊缝周边检查发现两处裂纹。通过宏观检验、断裂面形貌分析以及金相组织分析等方法对其开裂原因进行了分析。结果表明:由于结构设计原因,尾喷管上同一位置存在多次焊接现象,为多密集焊缝结构件,使得焊接接头过热,焊缝组织中铁素体呈现网状分布,同时尾喷管母材上存在焊接烧穿现象,导致焊接接头力学性能下降,使得疲劳裂纹萌生并扩展;支撑螺杆与加强筋未焊满,收弧处为点连接而非面连接,在飞行过程中,该位置发生振动应力集中并萌生疲劳裂纹,并最终发生疲劳失效。

    Abstract:

    As one of the important components of aircraft engine, the exhaust tail pipe is mainly welded from thin plates. Due to the longterm harsh conditions such as high temperature, vibration and air flow, exhaust tail pipe failure accidents often occur, and the weld often cracks as the weak part of the exhaust tail pipe. Two cracks were found in the exhaust tail pipe on the aircraft during routine inspection after the flight. The causes of cracking were analyzed by macroscopic inspection, fracture surface morphology analysis and microstructure analysis. The results show that due to the structural design reasons, there are multiple welds at the same position on the exhaust tail pipe, which is a structure with multiple dense welds, making the welding joints overheat, and the ferrite in the weld structure presents a netlike distribution. At the same time, there is a welding burnthrough on the welding joint, which leads to the decrease of the mechanical properties of the welding joint and the initiation and expansion of fatigue crack; the support screw and the reinforcing rib are not fully welded, and the arc is connected at the point instead of the surface. During the flight, the vibration stress concentration and fatigue cracks initiation occur at this position, and finally fatigue failure occurs.

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鞠伟.某型飞机尾喷管开裂原因分析[J].民用飞机设计与研 究,2021(2):100-105JU Wei.[J]. Civil Aircraft Design and Research,2021,(2):100-105. ( in Chinese)

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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-07-08
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